20.2 Calculation Formula

Calculation Formula

(1) Appearance Altitude


           M: Appearance Altitude (m) of the Hindrance
           H: Height (m) of the View Point
           h: Height (m) of the Object
           l: Distance (km) to the Object
           k: Distance (km) to the Hindrance

(2) Hybeny's Distance Formula


           D: Distance between the two points (m)
           P: Average Latitude of the tow points
           dP: Latitude difference between the two points
           dR: Longitude difference between two points
           M: Radius of the meridian curvature

           N: Radius of the prime vertical curvature



(3) Grid Interpolation

Linear interpolation

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